Cultivation and Management Practices
Cultivation and Management Practices
Khasi Mandarin orange - Citrus reticulata
SELECTION OF SITE FOR ORCHARDS
- Exposure to sufficient sunlight.
- Steep slopes, shallow, gravely and heavy soils avoided.
- Sub-tropical to semi-temperate climate.
- High humidity and warm summer and mild winter climate.
- Seeds from healthy, high yielding, disease and pest free plants will be selected.
- Seeds shown in nursery immediately after extraction (within a week).
- Seeds shown in nursery into a depth of 1.5-2 cm with a spacing of 10X5 cm.
- Seedlings at 4-6 leaf stage shifted to secondary bed or polythene bags having equal part of soil, sand and Farm Yard Manure (FYM).
- Seedlings are ready for planting in main field or for grafting and budding after 12-18 months.
- Selected seedling for planting should be strong, healthy and free from pest and diseases of uniform growth and about 60-90 cm in height.
Root stock: Rough lemon
- ”T‘ shape cut in the root stock at 15-20 cm above the ground level.
- Two flaps of the bark are loosened with the help of bare blade of budding knife.
- A shield shaped patch of 2.5 cm length bark containing a bud is removed from mother plant.
- The bud is inserted into the ”T‘ cut on the root stock and tied with 400 gauge polythene strip or hessian cloth leaving the bud open.
Time of Planting: June- August
Spacing: 5 X 5 m
Pit size: 0.75 x 0.75 x 0.75 m
Filling of pit
- Upper 10 cm soil, 15-20 kg Farm Yard Manure (FYM), 100 g Urea, 100 g MOP,300 SSP, 100 g chloropyriphos dust or granule.
- Bud graft union kept 15 cm above the ground level.
- The root system of plant should be dipped in Ridomil MZ-72 @ 2.75 g/liter + Bavistin 1g/litre solution for 10-15 minutes before planting in pits.
- Filled about 10 cm above the ground level.
- French bean, rice bean and other vegetable crops may be cultivated during pre- bearing stage (1-5 yrs).
- During 2nd year onwards 5 kg FYM/ tree need to be applied and subsequent year 5 g FYM/year to be increased and for 6th year onward 25 kg/tree applied.
- Need based application of macro and micro nutrients to be done based on soil sample testing or based on recommendation of experts.
- During the first year, all the branches growing within a 50 centimeter from the ground level and removed, leaving about half a meter of clean, straight stem with a few (4-6) well placed branches.
- All undesirable branches like water sprouts should be pruned once in a month during the first year and once in two or three months subsequently.
- In bearing trees, water shoots, dried and diseased branches should be pruned once or twice a year.
- Pruning of non-bearing trees can be done at any time, but for bearing trees pruning may be done immediately after harvest.
- Sprayingof2,4-D@1g/100liters of water of button stage and 2g/100 liters ofwater just before harvest or Plano fix @ 1ml/5 liters of water in the month ofMarch-April and August-September.
- Accumulation of coarse saw dust in branches/tree base.
- Round holes on the trunk.
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- Collection and destruction of adult during April-July.
- Endosulfan/or monocrotophos + lime +water (1:10:100) or
- 3ml of Monocrotophos in 1 lit of enamel paint smeared on trunk upto 1m height during April œ June at two times.
- Spraying neem formulation (4ml/litre of water or endosulfan (0.70 %) or monocrotophos (0.05 %) or quinalphos (0.05%), 3 times during April to July.
- Stem injection @ 10 ml/hole with monocrotophos (0.07 %) or dichlorvos (0.05 %) at the bore holes during May to October and after injection the holes should be plugged with mud.
- Encouragement for existence of predatory ants.
- Clean the bored hole of the infested plant with iron wire and insert a cotton swab soaked in petrol or dichlorvos.
- Puncturing of fruits
- Puncture area become soft, musty and has a penetrating odour.
- Premature falling of damaged fruits.
- Smoking of orchard (half an hour before dust to 2-3 hour duration).
- Spraying of neem formulations (@4ml/litres of water) Or 2% fish oil resin soap applied just before ripening.
- Regular collection of damaged fruits and buried deeply.
- Trapping and killing moths with poison bait (1kg sugar + 50 mldichlorvos in 10 litres of water.
- 20-30 contains of poison bait should be hang in one hectare area.
- Larvae mines on tender leaves, feeds epidermis and creates. zigzag galleries, leaves turn pale, curl and dried off.
- Pruning and burning of the affected parts during winter.
- Spraying neem seed extract @ 2%.
- Spraying monocrotophos 0.05% or fenvalerate 0.01%.
- Infesting lower surface of tender leaves, shoots, and young fruits.
- Infested foliage gets curled up and fruit drops prematurely.
- Spraying Neem oil or Neem seed extract @ 2%.
CITRUS CANKER (Xanthomonas compestris pv citri).
- Cankerous yellow colour spots appears on seedling, leaves and fruits.
- Spraying with Bordeaux mixture 1%, streptomycin sulphate 500-1000 ppm at 15 ays interval.
SOOTY MOULD (Capnodium sp.)
- A sooty black coating develops on leaves and twigs and fruits.
- Spraying with plant with fish oil, resin soap or crude oil emulsion and starch 250g:250g:450g) which will come off as flakes in due course.
- Spraying cow urine will also reduce the sooty mould.
- Fungal growth which progressively turns blue or green as spores develop on fruit.
- Spraying of imazalil should be applied with in 24 hr of harvest.
- The parasite makes a bunchy growth on one or more limbs of tree.
- Pruning of the affected twigs and eradication of parasitic growth in time.
|For More Details |
ICTs for Agricultural Extension Village Knowledge Centre
Pasighat, East Siang District Phone No.:2282323www.earik.in
|Acknowledgement: This publication is prepared with the support from the Technology Information Facilitation Programme (TIFP), Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), Grant No.: DSIR/TIF086/2007; Dated March, 2007.|