Saravanan, R, (2012) e-Agriculture Prototype for Knowledge Facilitation among Tribal Farmers of North-East India: Innovations, Impact and Lessons. Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. Vol.19 (2).Pp:113-131

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Cultivation and Management Practices

R. Saravanan

P. Raja

College of Horticulture and Forestry Central Agricultural University Pasighat-791102
Arunachal Pradesh

Cultivation  and  Management Practices 
Khasi Mandarin orange - Citrus reticulata

  • Exposure to sufficient sunlight.
  • Steep slopes, shallow, gravely and heavy soils avoided.
  • Sub-tropical to semi-temperate climate.
  • High humidity and warm summer and mild winter climate.
Soil: PH 5.5 to 6.5, well drained, medium deep soil.

  • Seeds from healthy, high yielding, disease and pest free plants will be selected.
  • Seeds shown in nursery immediately after extraction (within a week).
  • Seeds shown in nursery into a  depth of 1.5-2 cm with a spacing of 10X5 cm.
  • Seedlings  at  4-6  leaf stage shifted  to  secondary  bed or  polythene  bags  having equal part of soil, sand and Farm Yard Manure (FYM).
  • Seedlings  are  ready  for  planting  in  main  field  or  for  grafting  and  budding  after  12-18 months.
  • Selected  seedling  for  planting  should  be  strong,  healthy  and  free  from  pest  and diseases of uniform growth and about 60-90 cm in height.
Budding: February - March or July- August.

Root stock: Rough lemon
  • ”T‘ shape cut in the root stock at 15-20 cm above the ground level.
  • Two flaps of the bark are loosened with the help of bare blade of budding knife.
  • A  shield  shaped  patch  of  2.5  cm  length  bark  containing  a  bud  is  removed  from mother plant.
  • The  bud  is  inserted  into  the  ”T‘  cut  on  the  root  stock  and  tied  with  400  gauge polythene strip or hessian cloth leaving the bud open.
Time of Planting: June- August 

Spacing: 5 X  5 m

Pit size: 0.75 x 0.75 x 0.75 m

Filling of pit
  • Upper  10  cm  soil,  15-20  kg  Farm  Yard  Manure  (FYM),  100  g  Urea,  100  g  MOP,300   SSP, 100 g chloropyriphos dust or granule.
  • Bud graft union kept 15 cm above the ground level.
  • The  root  system  of  plant  should  be  dipped  in  Ridomil  MZ-72  @  2.75  g/liter  + Bavistin 1g/litre solution for 10-15 minutes before planting in pits.
  • Filled about 10 cm above the ground level.
  • French bean, rice bean and other vegetable crops may be cultivated during pre- bearing stage (1-5 yrs).
  • During  2nd  year  onwards  5  kg  FYM/  tree  need  to  be  applied  and  subsequent  year  5  g FYM/year to be increased and for 6th  year onward 25 kg/tree applied.
  • Need based application of macro and micro nutrients to be done based on soil sample testing or based on recommendation of experts.
  • During the first year,  all  the branches  growing  within  a  50  centimeter  from  the ground  level  and  removed,  leaving  about  half  a  meter  of  clean, straight  stem  with a few (4-6) well placed branches.
  • All undesirable  branches  like  water  sprouts  should  be  pruned  once  in  a  month during the first year and once in two or three months subsequently.
  • In bearing trees, water shoots, dried and diseased branches should be pruned once or twice a year.
  • Pruning of non-bearing trees can be done at any time, but for bearing trees  pruning may be done immediately after harvest.
IRRIGATION: December to March, 15-20 days intervals.

  • Sprayingof2,4-D@1g/100liters of water of button stage and 2g/100 liters ofwater just before harvest or Plano fix @ 1ml/5 liters of water in the month ofMarch-April and August-September.

  • Accumulation of coarse saw dust in branches/tree base.
  • Round holes on the trunk.

  • Collection and destruction of adult during April-July.
  • Endosulfan/or monocrotophos + lime +water (1:10:100) or
  • 3ml of Monocrotophos in 1 lit of enamel paint smeared on trunk upto 1m height during April œ June at two times.
  • Spraying neem formulation (4ml/litre of water or endosulfan (0.70 %) or monocrotophos (0.05 %) or quinalphos (0.05%), 3 times during April to July.
  • Stem injection @ 10 ml/hole with monocrotophos (0.07 %) or dichlorvos (0.05 %) at the bore holes during May to October and after injection the holes should be plugged with mud.
  • Encouragement for existence of predatory ants.
  • Clean the bored hole of the infested plant with iron wire and insert a cotton swab soaked in petrol or dichlorvos.
FRUIT SUCKING MOTH (Othresis fullonica)

  • Puncturing of fruits
  • Puncture area become soft, musty and has a penetrating odour.
  • Premature falling of damaged fruits.
  • Smoking of orchard (half an hour before dust to 2-3 hour duration).
  • Spraying of neem formulations (@4ml/litres of water) Or 2% fish oil resin soap applied just before ripening.
  • Regular collection of damaged fruits and buried deeply.
  • Trapping and killing moths with poison bait (1kg sugar + 50 mldichlorvos in 10 litres of water.
  • 20-30 contains of poison bait should be hang in one hectare area.
CITRUS LEAF MINER(Phyllocnisttis citrella)

  • Larvae mines on tender leaves, feeds epidermis and creates. zigzag galleries, leaves turn pale, curl and dried off.
  • Pruning and burning of the affected parts during winter.
  • Spraying neem seed extract @ 2%.
  • Spraying monocrotophos 0.05% or fenvalerate 0.01%.
APHIDS(Toxoptera aurantii)

  • Infesting lower surface of tender leaves, shoots, and young fruits.
  • Infested foliage gets curled up and fruit drops prematurely.
  • Spraying Neem oil or Neem seed extract @ 2%.

CITRUS CANKER (Xanthomonas compestris pv citri).
  • Cankerous yellow colour spots appears on seedling, leaves and fruits.

  • Spraying with Bordeaux mixture 1%, streptomycin sulphate 500-1000 ppm at 15 ays interval.

SOOTY MOULD (Capnodium sp.)

  • A sooty black coating develops on leaves and twigs and fruits.


  • Spraying with plant with fish oil, resin soap or crude oil emulsion and starch 250g:250g:450g) which will come off as flakes in due course.
  • Spraying cow urine will also reduce the sooty mould.
BLUE AND GREEN MOULD (Penicillium italicum)

  • Fungal growth which progressively turns blue or green as spores develop on fruit.
  • Spraying of imazalil should be applied with in 24 hr of harvest.
LORANTHUS (Loranthus sp.)

  • The parasite makes a bunchy growth on one or more limbs of tree.
  • Pruning of the affected twigs and eradication of parasitic growth in time.
For More Details
e-Arik (e-Agriculture)
ICTs for Agricultural Extension Village Knowledge Centre
Yagrung Village
Pasighat, East Siang District Phone
Acknowledgement: This publication is prepared with the support from the Technology Information Facilitation Programme (TIFP), Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), Grant No.: DSIR/TIF086/2007; Dated March, 2007.